The vessel, Dong Hai Jiu 101, set sail on Sunday after it was refitted with deep-water search equipment in Singapore.
It will arrive in South Indian Ocean on Feb. 10.
China says it will make all-out efforts to search the plane and closely coordinate with Malaysia and Australia.
The Australian-led operation completed a search of 86,423 square km of waters by Jan. 30 and is expected to cover all 120,000 square km of key areas in June.
Flight MH370 disappeared with 239 people on board on its way from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing in March 2014.