Boehner said on Friday that he would resign from Congress at the end of October.
The reason, he said, is he believes that “putting members through prolonged leadership turmoil would do irreparable damage to the institution.”
The announcement also came before a potential floor vote pushed by Republican conservatives to oust him , a formal challenge that has not been used in the House for over 100 years.
Boehner, 65, has been criticized by conservatives in the Republican Party for failing to fight the Obama administration on important issues in particular government funding.
The Ohio Republican, first elected to Congress in 1990, became Speaker of the House in 2011.
He got re-elected in January and was due to serve another two-year term as Republicans enjoy a stronger House majority.